Section I - NAME

1. The name of the organization shall be the Wyoming Association of Professional      

    Archaeologists (WAPA), hereinafter referred to as the Association. 


1. The period of existence and duration of this Association shall be perpetual. 


1. The Association is a nonprofit voluntary organization that exists for the purposes of

    maintaining and promoting the goals of professional archaeology in the State of Wyoming.

2. These goals shall include but shall not be limited to:

      a. establishing and promoting high standards of archaeological research, reporting and   


      b. establishing and promoting professional archaeological interests in political and                       public forums;

      c. establishing and promoting communications with the archaeological community;

      d. establishing and promoting forums for discussing research problems and data;

      e. promoting public education and interest in cultural resource preservation and                         conservation;

      f. promoting investigations in the fields of prehistoric and historic cultural resources;

      g. providing Association input to appropriate State, Federal and local agencies. 


1. Individual voting member

      a. Qualifications
          i. Minimum of BA or BS degree in Anthropology or closely related discipline;
         ii. Minimum of 12 months full-time professional archaeological experience;
        iii. Exceptions to i. and ii. shall be considered on a case-by-case basis by the     

             Association Membership and Ethics Committee;
        iv. No breaches of the Association Code of Conduct or Standards of Research    


      b. Entry procedures 
          i.  Application, including submission of vitae and payment of annual dues; 
         ii.  Acceptance by majority vote of the Association Membership and Ethics                                      Committee 
after review of credentials.

       c. Rights and duties
          i.  Adherence to the Association Code of Conduct and Standards of Research 

         ii.  Right to participate in Association activities and responsibility to pay dues as       

              established in accordance with Section VI (1);
        iii.  Full voting rights in all Association business
        iv.  Eligibility to serve as an Association officers or member of any Association                                committee;
         v.  Receipt of all Association publications.

2.  Family voting members

      a.  Qualifications for each individual member of a legally recognized family
           i.  Minimum of BA or BS degree in Anthropology or closely related discipline;
          ii.  Minimum of 12 months full-time professional archaeological experience;
         iii.  Exceptions to i. and ii. shall be considered on a case-by-case basis by the      

               Association Membership and Ethics Committee;
         iv. No breaches of the Association Code of Conduct or Standards of Research 


      b. Entry Procedures
          i.  Application, including submission of vitae and payment of annual dues;
         ii. Acceptance by majority vote of the Association Membership and Ethics committee      

             after review of credentials.

      c. Rights and duties
          i.  Adherence to the Association Code of Conduct and Standards of Research

         ii.  Right to participate in Association activities and responsibility to pay dues for each

              family member at 75% of the individual membership rate established in accordance

              with Section VI (1);
        iii.  Full-voting rights for each family member in all Association business;
        iv.  Eligibility of each family member to serve as an Association officer or member of  

              any Association committee;
         v.  Receipt of one copy of all Association publications per family. 

3.  Student membership

      a.  Qualifications
           i.  Active participation in an academic program leading to a degree
               in Anthropology or closely related discipline;
           ii. Exceptions will be considered on a case-by-basis by the Membership and Ethics


4.   b.  Entry procedures
           i.  Application, including vitae and payment of annual dues;
          ii.  Acceptance by majority vote of the Membership and Ethics committee
               after review of credentials.

5.   c.  Rights and duties
           i.  Adherence to the Association Code of Conduct and Standards of Research

           ii. Right to participate in Association activities and responsibility to pay dues at 50% of

               the rate established for individual voting members in accordance with Section VI.(1). 

          iii. All rights of Voting Members. 
          iv. Receipt of all Association publications.

6. Honorary members

      a. Qualifications
            i. An honorary, non-voting membership can be awarded to non-members who make                    a 
significant contribution, which furthers the goals of the Association.
           ii.  An honorary voting membership can be awarded to Association members who      

                make a significant contribution, which furthers the goals of the Association.

      b. Entry procedures
            i.  Acceptance by the Membership and Ethics committee, or nomination at a regular

                meeting, followed by a 60 percent acceptance by the voting membership.

      c. Rights and Duties
            i.  Acceptance of the Association Code of Conduct and Standards of Research 

           ii. Non-voting honorary members hold all rights of voting members except voting on

               Association business, membership on committees, and serving as an Association

          iii.  Honorary voting members hold all rights and duties of voting members except for
                payment of dues established in accordance with Section VI. (1).  

7. Institutional Members 

8.   c.  Rights and duties
           i.  Acceptance of the Association Code of Conduct and Standards of Research  

           ii. Receipt of all Association publications except for subscription to the Association


9. Lifetime voting members

      a. Individual or family voting members may purchase a lifetime voting membership for


      b. Lifetime voting members hold all the same rights and responsibilities, as individual     

          voting members,except for payment of annual dues.

Section V - MEETINGS

      1. The Association shall hold two business meetings per year and meet on other                           occasions as the membership shall deem necessary. A petition by ten voting members               may request that the Executive Committee call a special meeting. Notice must be                       placed in the mail at least 4 weeks prior to all meetings, regular or special.

      2. Passage of a motion at a meeting shall require 51 percent sustainment by the voting 

          members present at that regular meeting, whereas business conducted at a special

          meeting must be sustained by a 60 percent affirmation by the voting membership, to               be conducted either by mail or electronic mail ballot.

      3. Modification of these By-laws requires a 60 percent affirmation by the voting 



      1. Dues shall be paid to the Association at rate(s) established by majority vote of the

          membership. Dues notices shall be sent to all members prior to the spring semi-                       annual meeting. Dues are payable to the treasurer by the spring semi-annual meeting.

      2. Dues shall by used for the purpose of financing the business of the Association,

          including but not limited to fees for secretarial services and expenses of officers 

          incurred in the normal course of Association business.

      3. If dues remain unpaid for two consecutive meetings, membership shall be revoked.

          Prior to revocation, delinquent dues notices shall be sent by the treasurer. If dues

          remain unpaid, notice of revocation shall follow. Terminated members shall have an

          opportunity to reapply for membership.

      4. Finances shall be administered by the Treasurer. Records shall be available for

          inspection by the membership at all times and shall be audited for the preceding fiscal

          year prior to the semi-annual spring meeting.

      5. Single expenditures in excess of $200 require the prior concurrence of the President; 

          single expenditures in excess of $500 require the prior concurrence of the Executive

          Committee, and shall be within the constraints of available funds.

      6. Property

                a. The Association may receive, maintain and hold, by request, device, gift, or 

                    otherwise, either absolutely or in trust, for any of its purposes, property, either

                    real or personal, or funds, without limitations as to amounts or values.

                b. The Association may convey such property and invest and reinvest any principal 

                    and interest; and may direct, manage, and expand the income and principal of                           the Association and the agency or agencies making such funds available, for the                       uses and purposes herein set forth.

      7. No officer or member of the Association, in the absence of fraud committed by that

          officer or member, shall become personally liable for any debts or liabilities rising

          against or incurred by the Association or its officers, agents, employees, or members;

          and the private property of the officers and members of this organization shall be

          exempt from liability for any and all debts, obligations or liabilities of the Association. 


      1. The place of business for the organization shall be c/o. Office of the Wyoming State
          Archaeologist, Anthropology, Department 3431, 1000 E. University, Laramie,      

          WY 82071.   The Association Treasurer is authorized to direct financial institutions to

          mail statements and other regular financial correspondence directly to the Association

      2. Robert's Rules of Order shall govern the procedures at each meeting; other rules may

          govern as established by the President or presiding officer at the beginning of the



      1. The Association shall have four officers: President, Vice-President, Secretary, and 

          Treasurer. All officers shall hold office for two years. The Executive committee shall                   fill any vacancy during any term of office, by appointment, from the membership. Such 

          appointments shall be for the remainder of the original elected term of office.

              a. President. The President shall serve as the Association's representative in all its

                  official affairs and transactions. The President shall reside over Association 

                  meetings. The President may appoint committees as necessary, with the assent of

                  the Executive Committee.

              b. Vice-President. The Vice-President shall act with the powers of the President in                         the event that the President is unwilling or unable to perform appointed duties.                         In addition, the Vice-President shall chair the Membership and Ethics Committee.

              c. Secretary. The Secretary shall announce all meetings to the membership of the

                  Association and shall maintain minutes of all meetings.

              d. Treasurer. The Treasurer shall keep membership rolls of the Association, shall

                  maintain records of financial transactions in accordance with standard 

                  bookkeeping practices, and shall disperse funds according to Section VI.

      2. The Association shall appoint or retain a legal Counsel, as needed.

      3. The Association shall appoint an Editor who shall solicit and edit material for a

          newsletter of the Association, and, when authorized, develop other official                                 publications. The Editor shall serve as long as such appointment remains agreeable to                the editor, the Executive Committee and the Association. 



      1. Executive Committee

             a. The voting members of the Executive Committee shall be composed of the

                 Association Officers, the newsletter editor, and 2 Members-at-Large, to be                                elected for 2 year terms. The immediate past president shall serve as an "ex                               officio" member of the Executive Committee.

             b. The Executive Committee shall act in behalf of the Association to further the goals

                 of the Association as set forth in its Constitution and By-laws.

      2. Membership and Ethics Committee

             a. The Membership and Ethics Committee shall be composed of the Vice-President 

                 and 4 voting Members, appointed by the Executive Committee, no more than 2 of

                 which are Executive Committee Members. The Vice-President shall chair the


             b. The purpose of the Membership and Ethics Committee shall be to review and vote

                 on new members who shall then be accepted by majority vote of the committee.

             c. The Membership and Ethics Committee shall recommend that matters involving

                 professional archaeological conduct of Association members, or of persons or

                 organizations external to the Association, be brought to the attention of the

                 Executive Committee for action. 


      1. The other officers of the Association, and the two Members-at-Large of the Executive

          Committee, shall be elected by mail ballot of the membership, requiring a simple

          majority of all votes cast.

      2. Completed ballots shall be mailed in signed, sealed envelopes, or submitted in person               at the fall semi-annual meeting. Nominations shall be accepted bi-annually at the                     spring business meeting. Ballots shall be mailed to the voting membership at least                   four weeks prior to the subsequent fall meeting. Newly elected officers shall assume                 office at the end of the said fall meeting. Ballots shall be counted by two voting                         members appointed by the President.

      3. The President shall not vote in an election, except to break a tie. 


      1. The Association shall publish a newsletter. The Association , may from time to time,  

          authorize the publication of other single or serial items. 


      1. These By-laws shall become effective upon ratification by a 2/3 sustainment of those 

          registered by the time of the second organizational meeting. 


      1. In the event of dissolution, the Executive Committee shall dispose of all Association

          assets to an educational or scientific institution that is exempt from taxation under                   the then current code of the Internal Revenue Service. 



Archaeology is a profession, and the privilege of professional practice requires professional morality and professional responsibility, as well as professional competence, on the part of each practitioner.

      1. The Archaeologist's Responsibility to the Public

           a. An archaeologist shall:

               i. Recognize a commitment to represent Archaeology and its research results to the

                  public in a responsible manner;
              ii. Actively support conservation of the archaeological resource base;
e sensitive to, and respect the legitimate concerns of, groups whose culture

                  histories are the subjects of archaeological investigations;
             iii. Avoid and discourage exaggerated, misleading, or unwarranted statements about

                  archaeological matters that might induce others to engage in unethical or illegal

                  activity; Support and comply with the terms of the UNESCO Convention on the

                  means of prohibiting and preventing the illicit import, export, and transfer of

                  ownership of cultural property, as adopted by the General Conference, 14

                  November 1970, Paris.
b. An archaeologist shall not:

               i. Engage in any illegal or unethical conduct involving archaeological matters or

                  knowingly permit the use of his/her name in support of any illegal or unethical

                  activity involving archaeological matters;
              ii. Give a professional opinion, make a public report, or give legal testimony                                   involving 
archaeological matters without being as thoroughly informed as might                       reasonably be expected;

             iii. Engage in conduct involving dishonesty, fraud, deceit or misrepresentation about

                  archaeological matters;
             iv. Undertake any research that affects the archaeological resource base for which

                  she/he is not qualified.
              v. Knowingly be involved in the recovery or excavation of artifacts for commercial     

                  exploitation, or knowingly be employed by or knowingly contract with an   

                  individual or entity who recovers or excavates archaeological artifacts for

                  commercial exploitation.

 The Archaeologist's Responsibility to Colleagues, Employees, and Students

           a. An archaeologist shall:

               i. Give appropriate credit for work done by others;                           
              ii. Stay informed and knowledgeable about developments in her/his field or fields of


             iii. Accurately, and without undue delay, prepare and properly disseminate a

                  description of research done and its results;                         
             iv. Communicate and cooperate with colleagues having common professional


              v. Give due respect to colleagues' interests in, and rights to, information about sites,

                  areas, collections, or data where there is a mutual active or potentially active

                  research concern;

             vi. Know and comply with all federal, state, and local laws, ordinances, and                                     regulations applicable to her/his archaeological research and activities;

            vii. Report knowledge of violations of this Code to proper authorities.

           b. An archaeologist shall not:

               i. Falsely or maliciously attempt to injure the reputation of another archaeologist;
              ii. Commit plagiarism in oral or written communication;
             iii. Undertake research that affects the archaeological resource base unless                                     reasonably 
prompt, appropriate analysis and reporting can be expected;

             iv. Refuse a reasonable request from a qualified colleague for research data.

 The Archaeologist's Responsibility to Employers and Clients

           a. An archaeologist shall:

               i. Respect the interests of her/his employer or client, so far as is consistent with                            the public welfare and this Code and Standards;

              ii. Refuse to comply with any request or demand of an employer or client which

                  conflicts with the Code and Standards;
             iii. Recommend to employers or clients the employment of other archaeologists or

                  other expert consultants upon encountering archaeological problems beyond

                  her/his own competence;
             iv. Exercise reasonable care to prevent her/his employees, colleagues, associates                           and 
others whose services are utilized by her/him from revealing or using                                 confidential information. Confidential information means information of a non-                         archaeological nature gained in the course of employment which the employer or                     client has requested be held inviolate, or the disclosure of which would be                                 embarrassing or would be likely to be detrimental to the employer or client.                                Information ceases to be confidential when the employer or client so indicates or                      when such information becomes publicly known.

           b. An archaeologist shall not:

               i. Reveal confidential information, unless required by law;
              ii. Use confidential information to the disadvantage of the client or employer;
             iii. Use confidential information for the advantage of herself/himself or a third                               person, 
unless the client consents after full disclosure;

             iv. Accept compensation or anything of value for recommending the employment of

                  another archaeologist or other person, unless such compensation or thing of value

                  is fully disclosed to the potential employer or client;
              v. Recommend or participate in any research which does not comply with the

                  requirements of the Standards of Research Performance


The research archaeologist has a responsibility to attempt to design and conduct projects that will add to our understanding of past cultures and/or that will develop better theories, methods, or techniques for interpreting the archaeological record, while causing minimal attrition of the archaeological resource base. In the conduct of a research project, the following minimum standards should be followed:

  1. The archaeologist has a responsibility to prepare adequately for any research project,

      whether or not in the field. The archaeologist must:

      a. Assess the adequacy of her/his qualifications for the demands of the project, and 

         minimize inadequacies by acquiring additional expertise, by bringing in associates with

         the needed qualifications, or by modifying the scope of the project;

      b. Inform herself/himself of relevant previous research;

      c. Develop a scientific plan of research which specifies the objectives of the project,                       takes into account previous relevant research, employs a suitable methodology, and                 provides for economical use of the resource base (whether such base consists of an                   excavation site or of specimens) consistent with the objectives of the project;

      d. Ensure the availability of adequate and competent staff and support facilities to carry

          the project to completion, and of adequate curatorial facilities for specimens and


      e. Comply with all legal requirements, including, without limitation, obtaining all                           necessary governmental permits and necessary permission from landowners or other               persons;

      f. Determine whether the project is likely to interfere with the program or projects of                    other scholars and, if there is such a likelihood, initiate negotiations to minimize such 


  2. In conducting research, the archaeologist must follow her/his scientific plan of research, 

      except to the extent that unforeseen circumstances warrant its modification.

  3. Procedures for field survey or excavation must meet the following minimal standards:

      a. If specimens are collected, a system for identifying and recording their proveniences 

          must be maintained.

      b. Uncollected entities such as environmental or cultural features, depositional strata,                   and the like, must be fully and accurately recorded by appropriate means, and their                   location recorded.

      c. The methods employed in data collection must be fully and accurately described. 

          Significant stratigraphic and/or associational relationships among artifacts, other 

          specimens, and cultural and environmental features must also be fully and accurately


      d. All records should be intelligible to other archaeologists. If terms lacking commonly                 held referents are used, they should be clearly defined.

      e. Insofar as possible, the interests of other researchers should be considered. For

          example, upper levels of a site should be scientifically excavated and recorded                           whenever feasible, even if the focus of the project is on underlying levels.

  4. During accessioning, analysis, and storage of specimens and records in the laboratory,
      the archaeologist must take precautions to ensure that correlations between the

      specimens and the field records are maintained, so that provenience contextual

      relationships and the like are not confused or obscured.

  5. Specimens and research records resulting from a project must be deposited at an
      institution with permanent curatorial facilities, unless otherwise required by law.

  6. The archaeologist has responsibility for appropriate dissemination of the results of                   her/his research to the appropriate constituencies with reasonable dispatch.

  7. Results reviewed as significant contributions to substantive knowledge of the past or to

      advancements in theory, method or technique should be disseminated to colleagues and

      other interested persons by appropriate means such as publications, reports at

      professional meetings, or letters to colleagues.

  8. Requests from qualified colleagues for information on research results directly should be

      honored, if consistent with the researcher's prior rights to publication and with                         her/his other professional responsibilities.

  9. Failure to complete a full scholarly report within 10 years after completion of a field                   project shall be construed as a waiver of an archaeologist's right of primacy with respect           to analysis and publication of the data. Upon expiration of such 10-year period, or at               such earlier time as the archaeologist shall determine not to publish the results, such               data should be made fully accessible to other archaeologists for analysis and publication.

10. While contractual obligations in reporting must be respected, archaeologists should not

      enter into a contract which prohibits the archaeologist from including her or his own

      interpretations or conclusions in the contractual reports, or from a continuing right to               use the data after completion of the project.

11. Archaeologists have an obligation to accede to reasonable requests for information from 

      the news media.


Revisions to By-Laws Effective May 2nd, 2014


‚ÄčThe Wyoming Archaeological Society

Wyoming Association of Professional Archaeologists